Dynamic loads arise everywhere in civil engineering. Normally, this can be considered by simple dimensioning approaches. In case of nonlinear characteristics have to be taken into account, like the tearing of the cross section or more complex dynamic effects like earthquakes or shock loads, more elaborate calculation and dimensioning methods are required. Then, the following methods are used:
The methods can be coupled with nonlinear material models unless they are not already included. In addition to particular proving scripts (e.g. with Excel), either engineering software with corresponding extension modules or special programs are used (ANSYS + MultiPlas, LSDyna).